The key difference between the developments of this technology compared to other existing manual inspection techniques is that inspection can be conducted in-situ without the requirement to remove the axles and associated bogies from the train and with minimal disassembly of the wheelset. For solid axles, inspection techniques are to be developed that inspection is carried out from the end face of the axles using new and novel 2D annular PAUT technology to be developed by the consortium. For hollow axles, probes based on conventional ultrasonic testing (UT) and electromagnetic inspection techniques are to be developed. The electromagnetic techniques will be used to detect surface breaking cracks that cannot be detected by ultrasonic inspection. Data fusion will combine UT and EM results to give 100% coverage. The overall idea of the project is to improve the efficiency in the use of axles by extending their life and monitoring their safe deployment.